About Us


The Illinois Prairie State Chiropractic Association (IPSCA) is a state chartered non-profit professional corporation which was originally founded in 1950.


1. To protect, promote, and promulgate the advancement of the philosophy, science and art of chiropractic and the professional welfare of members of this association in every legitimate and ethical way.  To this end, people in every locality shall have the unhampered right and opportunity of obtaining the qualified services of doctors of chiropractic and unquestionable standing and ability.

2. To maintain the science and art of chiropractic as a separate and distinct health profession dedicated to the service of mankind.

3. To preserve and protect the chiropractic principle and practice based on the premise that the relationship between structure and function in the human body is a significant health factor.

Since they serve humanity in the specialized “science and art which utilizes the inherent recuperative powers of the body and the relationship between the musculoskeletal structures and functions of the body, particularly of the spinal column and the nervous system, in the restoration and maintenance of health,” doctors of chiropractic have a unique health service to offer not available from any other source.

Members are authorized to do all things necessary and proper to exercise such power and authority as are consistent with the general purposes of this organization.  They will also   uphold the best interests of the profession and the public health and welfare under the Standards of Practice and Professional Conduct as well as the By-Laws of the IPSCA.


Throughout the ’50s innumberable members were prosecuted (and some jailed) for practicing medicine without a license.  After such hardship, the IPSCA was able to get section 9a of the Illinois Medical Practice Act passed, allowing Palmer graduates the opportunity to be tested and gain Illinois licensure.  This opened the door for licensing to many qualified and deserving chiropractors then and now.  Many D.C.s and patients are indebted to this standing for principles and diligence needed to overcome adversity.

Since the licensure amendment, the IPSCA has been active legislatively and administratively to promote and maintain the distinctness of chiropractic in the healing arts field.  Currently, members of the IPSCA vary in the schools they graduated from, the techniques they utilize, specialties they are certified in, and in ancillary procedures they use.  However, the common bond of members is the primary emphasis on the chiropractic adjustment (the removal of subluxations, primarily the spine).


As is nationally, and in other states, two or more organizations exist and function independently.

Distinguishable by actions regarding chiropractic principles, the Illinois Prairie State Chiropractic Association (IPSCA) promotes protection of chiropractic.

The IPSCA does not want to infringe upon medical practices (dispensing drugs, etc.) and desires to protect the public by discouraging unqualified individuals from performing the chiropractic adjustment.

The IPSCA’s position is that patients should have the freedom of choice in health matters and that legitimate health care providers should have freedom to practice their specialities.

The IPSCA has no plans to restrict or regulate the practice of chiropractors or other health professionals.  Our position is that chiropractors should be held to the standards of other D.C.s with the same training and mode of care.

Chiropractors cooperate at the public level for health education and in the governmental arena to support legislation on the behalf of the profession and chiropractic patients.



Accreditation, Evaluation, & CMETo provide access to educational programs focusing on quality assurance for the chiropractic profession.
Budget & FinanceTo prepare the annual budget and assess the financial needs and income of the association, and to develop a resource pool to meet the financial needs of the association.
Chiropractic Claims ReviewTo provide fair review for all parties concerned in evaluating the sum of the practitioner`s responsibilities to his/her patient, the public, private and governmental agencies and his/her profession.
Convention & ProgramsTo provide interesting educational programming which encourages updates for professional competency; family participation in a relaxing atmosphere.
InsuranceTo ensure the right of the consumer to chiropractic services with equal access and applicable reimbursement; to organize the committee and subcommittees to function efficiently.
Legal AffairsTo communicate with various administrative agencies and other entities for the purpose of retaining primary status and exclusive rights to the chiropractic method.
LegislativeTo monitor and support all legislative efforts to retain primary provider status for the chiropractor with exclusive right to the chiropractic method with insurance equality.
MembershipTo increase active participatory membership by 10% each year.
Mentoring ProgramTo assist students and doctors who are newly in practice or have been practicing by matching them with an experienced field doctor.  To assist new doctors in obtaining working chiropractic equipment to use for their office.
Professional RelationsTo engage as many members in a cooperative effort to improve interdisciplinary relations, to articulate the rationale of chiropractic care in the health delivery system so as to retain primary provider status.
Public InformationTo establish a professional three-point program on chiropractic for 1) current and potential consumer or chiropractic care (benefits), 2) business/industry/third-party payor (cost management/care), 3) government (quality assurance/cost management).
PublicationsTo keep membership updated on current information pertinent to the IPSCA, state, and national chiropractic health related issues through newsletters, special bulletins, journals, and web page.
Radiographic TechnicianTo access educational programs focusing on chiropractic radiology for the chiropractic technician.
StandardsTo monitor state and national statutes and judicial opinion, to monitor development in chiropractic education and research and other applicable health sciences, and periodically review and update the IPSCA Chiropractic Standards of Practice and Professional Conduct.  To process complaints in matters alleged non-compliance or violation of IPSCA Chiropractic Standards of Practice and/or Professional Conduct.
Student DevelopmentTo develop student awareness of Illinois and the IPSCA, to assist in smooth transition from student to new practitioner, or install awareness of the need to join and participate in the state association.



In April 1985, the lPSCA prepared and adopted the “Chiropractic Standards of Practice & Professional Conduct” as a guide for members.


CHIROPRACTIC is the science which concerns itself with the relationship between structure, primarily of the spine, and function, primarily of the nervous system, of the human body as the relationship may affect the restoration and preservation.

Applying the science of chiropractic, the doctor of chiropractic performs a healing art encompassing the following standards of Chiropractic Practice:

I. Subjective: Chiropractic Case History

A chiropractic case history shall be taken, the extent of which will be dictated by the considerations of the individual case presentation and the professional judgment of the attending doctor of chiropractic.

II. Objective: Chiropractic Examination

A doctor of chiropractic shall perform a chiropractic examination with emphasis on the presence or absence of a spinal or vertebral subluxation complex (the subluxation herein defined as an alteration of the biomechanical and/or physiological dynamics of contiguous articular structures which can cause neuronal modifications.)

The doctor of chiropractic shall make an assessment of structural tissues to determine the indications or contraindications regarding application of the chiropractic spinal adjustment or other forms of chiropractic clinical application.

The chiropractic examination may include x-ray, non-forceful static and motion palpation, thermographic and other appropriate analytical instrumentation, neurological findings, tests and measurements.

In those cases where x-rayed is utilized, it is recommended that the doctor of chiropractic adopt the following guidelines:

A. Routine radiography of any patient should be performed with due regard for clinical need.
B. Repeat radiographic evaluation of the patient should not be undertaken without

significant observable clinical indication, as determined by the attending doctor of

C. Pregnant females should not be radiographed unless the patient’s symptoms are of such significance that the proper care of the patient might be jeopardized without the use of such radiographs.
D. Radiographic procedures should not be undertaken without the use of appropriate compensating filters and gonad shielding, except where such gonad shielding would exclude an area from examination which is clinically necessary to examine.

E. Females with reproductive potential, or where the possibility of pregnancy exists, should be radiographed only where clinically necessary.

Further diagnostic test may be warranted in the professional judgment of the attending doctor of chiropractic based on the individual patient’s condition.

III. Assessment: Chiropractic Diagnosis or Analysis
The doctor of chiropractic will arrive at a chiropractic diagnosis or analysis incorporating the essential findings evidenced by the chiropractic case history and chiropractic examination.

The doctor of chiropractic shall inform the patient of the physical will, in conjunction with the patient, follow one of the commonly accepted approaches to the case.
A. acceptance of the case,
B. acceptance of the case with qualification,
C. referral of the case,
D. non-acceptance of the care.

IV. Plan: Chiropractic Care or Disposition
Having taken the case history, performed the chiropractic examination and rendered the chiropractic diagnosis or analysis, the doctor of chiropractic shall, upon informing the patient, take one of the following approaches to the case:
A. Acceptance of the Case
Care is directed at but not limited to the adjustment, correction or reduction of the spinal or vertebral subluxation complex.
Unique to the chiropractic profession is the delivery of the chiropractic adjustment which is the specific manual movement of a vertebra, using the vertebral processes as levers, to replace the vertebral motor unit to its normal biomechanical and physiological state. The purpose and intent of such adjustment is to relieve corrective tissue distortion and any nerve impingement.
Associated manipulation may include any applied manual or mechanical
movement supportive to the chiropractic adjustment and/or the patient’s general

Procedures supportive to the adjustment included rehabilitative exercises,
nutritional advice and/or other complementary procedures.

Case assessment will dictate one of the following programs of care:
1. Active
a. Relief
b. Therapeutic
c. Rehabilitative
d. Supportive
2. Preventative
B. Acceptance of the Case With Qualification
Based on the case assessment, the doctor of chiropractic accepts the patient for one of the above programs of care, while concurrently requesting an interdisciplinary consultation or evaluation.
C. Referral of the Case
In the professional judgment of the doctor of chiropractic, chiropractic care is deemed inappropriate for this case and the doctor chiropractic will so inform the patient.
D. Non-Acceptance of the Case.
The doctor of chiropractic, in his professional judgment, elects not to accept the case and so informs the individual. Grounds for non-acceptance shall not include discriminatory factors such as age, gender, ethnic background or creed.

As a member of a healing arts profession applying the highly specialized chiropractic science and art, doctors of chiropractic are committed to increasing knowledge of the human body as it concerns the restoration and preservation of health and to the utilization of such knowledge for the promotion of the public welfare.
Doctors of chiropractic use their skills only for purposes consistent with these values and do not knowingly permit their misuse by others. While reserving the right of freedom of inquiry and communication, doctors of chiropractic accept the responsibility this freedom requires: objectivity in the application of skills, and concern for the best interest of their patients, colleagues and society:
Pursuing these ideals, doctors of chiropractic, by virtue of membership in this association, voluntarily subscribe to the following Standards of Professional Conduct which are intended as a guide with respect to responsibilities to patients, the public and fellow practitioners.
I. Responsibility to the Patient

1. Doctors of chiropractic should recognize and respect the right of every person to free choice of doctor of chiropractic or other health care provider and the right to change such choice as will.
2. Doctors of chiropractic should hold themselves ready at all times to respond to the call of those needing their professional services, although they are free to accept or reject a particular patient.
3. Doctors of chiropractic should endeavor to practice with the highest degree of professional competency and honesty in the proper care of their patients.
4. Doctors of chiropractic owe loyalty, compassion and respect to their patients. The clinical judgment and practice should be objective and exercised solely for the benefit of their patients.
5. Doctors of chiropractic should assure that the patient possesses sufficient information to enable an intelligent choice in regarding to proposed chiropractic care. The patient should make his or her own determination on such care.
6. Doctors of chiropractic should attend to their patients as often as they consider necessary to insure the well being of their patients.
7. Doctors of chiropractic should be ready to consult and seek the talents of other health care professionals when such consultation would benefit their patient or when their patients express a desire for such consultation.
8. Having accepted a patient for care, doctors of chiropractic should not neglect the patient nor terminate professional services without taking reasonable steps to protect the patient, including providing due notice to the patient or the patient’s relatives to allow sufficient time for obtaining the professional services of others, delivering to the patient all papers and documents in compliance with number 9 of these standards.
9. Doctors of chiropractic should comply with the patient’s authorization to provide records, or copies of such records, to those whom the patient designates as authorized to inspect or receive all or part of such records. A reasonable charge may be made for the cost of duplicating records.
10. Subject to the foregoing section nine, doctors of chiropractic should preserve and protect the patient’s confidences and records, except as the patient directs or consents or the law requires. They should not discuss a patient’s history, symptoms diagnosis, or care with anyone until they have received the formal consent of the patient or the patient’s personal representative. They should avoid exploiting the trust and dependency of their patients.
11. Doctors of chiropractic are entitled to receive proper and reasonable compensation for their professional services commensurate with the value of the services they have rendered in light of their experience, time required, reputation and the nature of the condition. Doctors of chiropractic should support and practice in proper activities designed to enable access to necessary chiropractic care on the part of persons unable to pay such reasonable fees.
12. Doctors of chiropractic should maintain the highest standards of professional and personal conduct and should refrain from all illegal or morally reprehensible conduct.

II. Responsibility to the Public

1. Doctors of chiropractic should act as members of a learned profession dedicated to the promotion of health, the prevention of illness and the alleviation of suffering.
2. Doctors of chiropractic should observe the appropriate laws and regulations of governmental agencies and cooperate with pertinent activities, and policies of associations legally authorized to regulate or assist in the regulation of the chiropractic profession.
3. Doctors of chiropractic should participate as responsible citizens in the public affairs of their local community, state, and nation to improve law administrative procedures and public policies that pertain to chiropractic and the health care delivery system. Doctors of chiropractic should stand ready to take the initiative in the proposal and development of measures to benefit the general public health and well being, and should cooperate in the administration and enforcement of such measures and programs to the extent consistent with the law.
4. Doctors of chiropractic should exercise utmost care in the advertising of professional services, taking care that such advertisements are accurate and truthful in representing the chiropractors professional status and area of competence. Communications to the public should not appeal primarily to an individual’s anxiety or create unjustified expectations of results. Any offer or advertising of free x-rays to actual or potential patients should be accompanied by a statement that, to avoid needless health hazards associated with ionizing radiation, no such free x-ray will be given unless there is a prior observable clinical need.

5. Doctors of chiropractic should continually strive to improve their skill and competency by keeping abreast of current developments contained in health and scientific literature and by participating in continuing chiropractic education programs. As a condition of membership confidence in the chiropractic profession. In this association, doctors of chiropractic shall conform to at least the minimum standards of continuing chiropractic education required by Illinois law and in accordance with relevant IPSCA standards.

III. Responsibility to the Profession

1. Doctors of chiropractic should assist in maintaining the integrity, competency and highest standards of the chiropractic profession.

2. Doctors of chiropractic should by their behavior, avoid even the appearance of professional impropriety and should recognize that their public behavior may have an impact on the ability of the profession to serve the public. Doctors of chiropractic should promote confidence in the chiropractic profession.

3. Doctors of chiropractic and their immediate dependents should receive gratuitous professional services from other doctors of chiropractic.

4. As teachers, doctors of chiropractic should recognize their obligation to help others acquired knowledge and skill in the practice of the profession. They should maintain high standards, of scholarships, education, training and objectivity in the accurate and full dissemination of

information and ideas.

5. Doctors of chiropractic should promote and maintain cordial relationships with other members of the chiropractic profession and other professions members of the chiropractic profession and other professions for the exchange of information advantageous in the public health and well-being.


A permanent Committee on Chiropractic Standards of Practice and Professional Conduct is appointed
by the president with a mandate to:

1. Monitor state and national statues and judicial opinions as to their real or anticipated impact on the healing arts professions and to evaluate same for appropriate inclusion in the IPSCA Chiropractic Standards of Professional Conduct.

2. Monitor developments of chiropractic education and research and other applicable health sciences and to evaluate same for appropriate inclusion in the IPSCA Chiropractic Standards of Practice and/or Standards of Professional Conduct.

3. Periodically review and update the IPSCA Chiropractic Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Conduct so as to reflect the most current information and data relating to the practice of chiropractic.

The Committee of Chiropractic Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Conduct shall prepare such updates for submission to the IPSCA Executive Committee, Board of Directors and House of Delegates for appropriate action. The Committee shall also be responsible for incorporating approved additions or for deleting obsolete standards at the determination of the leadership and for dissemination of such additions or deletions to the Association membership.

A subcommittee on Chiropractic Standards Application is appointed by the president with a mandate to follow established procedures for filing and processing complaints in matters relating to professional practice and conduct.


1. The Subcommittee on Chiropractic Standards Application, may upon its own initiative or upon receipt of a complaint, consider and make disposition of matters concerning the conduct of any IPSCA member. It will utilize the procedure herein set forth.

2. Any doctor, who is a member of the IPSCA may file a compliant of any illegal violation of the Stand- ards of Practice and Professional Conduct of the IPSCA or of conduct unbecoming a doctor of chiro- practic.

3. With respect to such complaints:

a. They shall be submitted in writing with supportive documentation of an alleged violation.

b. All copies shall be signed by the party or parties making the complain.

c. The Subcommittee on Chiropractic Standards Application shall conduct an independent confidential investigation of any charges coming to the attention of the Committee.

d. After reasonable investigation, the Subcommittee on Chiropractic Standards Application will determines there is good reason to believe that a member has been guilty of violation(s). The Committee shall prepare and file with the Secretary a written complaint in which the information discovered in its clearly stated; pointing out the alleged violations(s) or alleged unbecoming conduct found in the complaint.

e. Notice of the filing of the complaint together with a copy of same shall be mailed by the Secretary to the accused by registered mail to his/her last known address at least twenty (20) days prior to any board action. The notice shall inform the accused that if the complaint is found to be substantially accurate; it will result in some disciplinary action being taken against the accused; which may result in his/her expulsion from membership and be reported to the Illinois Department of Professional Regulations.

f. The accused member may file an answer with Secretary withing fifteen (15) days after the receipt of the notice and complaint.

4. The Board of Directors will then consider the complaint as filed by the Subcommittee on the Chiropractic Standards Application. The Committee notice by the Secretary, via registered mail, of the time set by the Board of Directors to consider the complaint at the time set by the Board of Directors to consider the complaint at the time both the Subcommittee on Chiropractic Standards Application and the accused, or their respective representatives, may be present. Any person entitled to be present may be heard and may present witnesses. The Board of Directors may set reasonable rules for the orderly conduct of the hearing and may close the hearing from attendance by all, except those people involved, their representatives and their witnesses. The Board of Directors shall proceed to decide the question as to the merits of the complaint. Including what disciplinary action, if any is warranted. A four-fifths (4/5) vote of the Board of Directors shall be required to suspend the accused for a period of one (1) year or more. Disciplinary action of lesser stature may be voted by a majority of the Board of Directors.

5. The action of the Board of Directors may be appealed to the House of Delegates by the accused, if such action reflects upon the conduct of the accused. The appeal to the House of Delegates shall be made within ten (10) days after the final action of the Board of Directors. The accused’s shall give written notice to the Subcommittee on Chiropractic Standards Application and to the Secretary of intent to appeal. The House of Delegates shall hold a hearing in a matter at its next regular or special

meeting. The hearing by the House of Delegates shall hold a meeting. The hearing by the House of Delegates shall be de nove (anew). The record of the proceedings before the Board of Directors may be considered along with any other matters presented to the House of Delegates. In the event of an appeal to the House of Delegates, the action taken by the Board of Directors shall be null and void unless affirmed by the House of Delegates. A two-thirds (2/3) vote of the House of Delegates shall be necessary to affirm the action of the Board of Directors and a four-fifths (4/5) vote of the House of Delegates shall be necessary to impose stricter disciplinary action than what the Board of Directors directed.

6. In the event the House of Delegates’ opinion does not concur with the Board of Directors’ opinion, the Secretary shall notify the Association President. The Association President shall call a special meeting of the State Assembly of the Illinois Prairie State Chiropractic Association. A two-third (2/3) quorum of each body – Executive Committee, Board of Directors and House of Delegates shall rehear the matter. A four-fifths (4/5) vote of the Assembly shall be necessary to suspend the accused from membership. Disciplinary action or lesser statue may be voted by a majority of the Assembly.

7. Any Director, Officer or Delegate may be recalled and his office or position declared vacant of following the same procedure as for disciplining other matters. The President may appoint a replacement with the appeal of the State Assembly.

8. The Subcommittee on Chiropractic Standards Application, the IPSCA Executive Committee and Board of Directors, shall assume responsibility for compliance with state law as it regards and relates to the reporting of disciplinary action of members.

These standards are prepared and adopted as a guide for members of the lllinois Prairie State Chiropractic Association, April, 1985, revised October 1992.





The use of X-ray or radiographic examination by a chiropractor is primarily for spinography. Spinography is the  chiropractic art of analyzing X-rays for the following purposes:  

  1. Finding potential subluxations.  
  2. Understanding the anatomy to give the most appropriate adjustment.  
  3. Developing the most appropriate plan of care for the patient.  

Position Statement  

Radiography of a patient should only be performed on the basis of clinical need as judged by the  attending Doctor of Chiropractic. The following are standards for ordering radiographic studies.  These criteria are offered to assist in making this determination on a rational basis.  

  1. Standards for Radiographic Examinations.  

A radiographic examination is performed to help confirm or deny clinically suspected  mechanical alterations, including radiographic manifestations of a subluxation, abnormalities,  pathological conditions, and/or establishing a baseline standard for future radiographic  comparison where indicated.  

 The radiographic examination should be based on findings from the:    

  1. Case History and/or Physical Assessment  

 The following are examples which may indicate radiologic procedures. They are   not all inclusive:  

  1. Possible subluxation including:  

 apparent structural disrelationship of spinal or extra-spinal components;   apparent curvature of the spine;  

 spinal muscular imbalance;  

 spinal motion aberrations (hyper/hypo);  

 positive neuromusculoskeletal findings;  

 thermographic findings  

  1. Regional points of pain.  
  2. Signs of visceral malfunction or distress.  
  3. Significant laboratory findings. 

 Abnormal values in laboratory tests that might indicate disease, e.g., alkaline   phosphatase, serum calcium, or phosphorus levels.  

NOTE: Choosing an examination that will give maximum information at the lowest dose of  radiation to the patient is of preeminent importance and should be based on the following:  

  1. Does the patient have a health problem requiring a radiographic examination?  

2 Will the examination increase information about the patient and be consistent with the  patient’s health problem?  

  1. Will the examination result in alteration of patient management and/or disease  outcome?  
  2. Could the iatrogenic hazard outweigh the benefits of the procedure?  
  3. Could another examination/imaging procedure be warranted?  
  4. Selection of appropriate radiographic studies in Chiropractic practice.  
  5. A minimum of two opposing views of a body part, generally 90 degrees to each other,  constitutes the usual minimum for radiographic study.  
  6. All radiographic procedures should be accomplished with appropriate gonadal shielding  and compensating filters, except in those situations where filtration or shielding might  interfere with examination of the anatomical region of interest.  
  7. Special Considerations.  
  8. Progress re-evaluation.  

Repeat radiographic examination of the patient should not be routinely performed  without significant observable clinical indications, as determined by the attending Doctor  of Chiropractic.  

  1. The Female Patient  

When the possibility of pregnancy exists, females with reproductive potential should only  be radiographed during the first ten days following the onset of menses.  

  1. The Pregnant Patient  


Irradiation of a pregnant patient, regardless of the trimester, is discouraged. If clinical  indications warrant, areas may be studied that are outside the pelvis, proximal femora, 

thoracic and lumbar spine. These studies may be carried out with tight collimation and a  full lead apron worn by the patient. The need for the examination and the possible health  hazards must be fully explained to the patient. An informed consent document, signed by  the patient, should be included in the patient’s records.  

  1. The Pediatric Patient  

Clinical indications for the radiographic examination of the child follow similar criteria as  for the adult. The study should occur as a result of appropriate clinical history and  examination. As a result, X-rays might be taken to help confirm or deny the presence of a  clinically suspected anomaly, pathology or structural alteration including radiographic  manifestations of a subluxation important to case management.  


  1. Practicing Chiropractors Committee on Radiological Protocols. (2006). Guidelines.  Accessed at http://www.pccrp.org/
  2. International Chiropractors Association. (2008). Best practices and practice guidelines.  Accessed at http://www.chiropractic.org/Files/7-Chapter%206.pdf
  3. Kent C. (2017 Aug 31). An evidence-informed approach to spinal radiography in vertebral subluxation centered chiropractic practice. Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research:142-146. 
  4. Siegel JA, Pennington CW, Sacks B. (2017 Jan). Subjecting radiologic imaging to the  linear no-threshold hypothesis: a non sequitur of non-trivial proportion. Journal of  Nuclear Medicine, 58(1):1–6.  
  5. Bess S. (2016 Feb). The health impact of symptomatic adult spinal deformity: comparison of deformity types to United States population norms and chronic diseases. Accessed at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571174 
  6. Habibi Z, Maleki F, et al. (2014 Dec). Lumbosacral sagittal alignment in association to intervertebral disc diseases. Asian Spine Journal. Accessed at


  1. Rudy IS, Poulos A, et al. (2015 Feb 9). The correlation of radiographic findings and patient symptomatology in cervical degenerative joint disease: a cross-sectional study. Chiropractic Manipulative Therapeutics. Accessed at  


  1. Beck RW, Holt KR, et al. (2005). Radiographic anomalies that may alter chiropractic intervention strategies found in a New Zealand population. J Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics, 27(9):554-559. 
  2. Paik NC, Lim CS, Jang HS. (2013). Numeric and morphological verification of lumbosacral segments in 8280 consecutive patients, Spine, 38(10):E573–E578.
  3. Murphy S. (2012 Dec 5). Erect radiographs to assess clinical instability in patients with blunt cervical spine trauma. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 94(23):e1741-4. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.01502.  
  4. Radiologic evaluation of chronic neck pain. American Family Physician October 15, 2010; Vol. 82, No. 8, pp. 959-964
  5. Kuhta P, Hart J, Green-Orndorff L, McDowell-Reizer B, Rush P. (2010). The prevalence  of ponticulus ponticus: retrospective analysis of radiographs from a chiropractic health  center. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 9: 162-165.  
  6. Ross J, Bereznick DE, McGill SM. (1999 June 15). Atlas–axis facet asymmetry:  implications in manual palpation. Spine, 24(12):1203-1209.  
  7. Ji-Hong F. (2010 Feb). Variable morphology of the axis vertebrae in 100 specimens:  implications for clinical palpation and diagnostic imaging. Journal of Manipulative and  Physiological Therapeutics, 33(2):125-31.  
  8. Young, Kenneth & Aziz, A. (2009). An accounting of pathology visible on lumbar spine  radiographs of patients attending private chiropractic clinics in the United Kingdom.  Chiropractic J of Australia, 39: 63-9.  
  9. McLean, Ian D. (2009 Nov). Palmer College of Chiropractic Clinical Radiology  Department Policy and Procedures.  
  10. Palmer College of Chiropractic, Technique Department. (1977). Definition of  Spinography.  

Approved by the  

IPSCA Board of Directors  

April 11, 2018 

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